Carl Laemmle is the founder of Independent film. Looking of step out the standards established in the film industry by Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) or “Edison Trust” in 1909, Laemmle move from the East Coast to Hollywood to make new and different movies in little studios beginning the art film movement.
Thomas Edison owned most of the major American patents relating to motion picture cameras and every process surrounding it since 1890. The Edison Manufacturing Company comprising all the major film companies of the time like Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem. Also, George Kleine, the leading distributor and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak were included in this film industry monopoly.
Independent film is characterized by low cost production, developing in small studios and less than half of budget support compared to a Hollywood film; certainly more creative and always looking for more artistic and intellectual vision in a film.
Paramount, MGM, Universal, and Fox Film Corporation started as independent film studios evolving in the business today as big filmmaking studios with largest production studios, more elaborate sets, costumes and staff.
Hollywood studios search today for independent films that could possibly get to be big production in art film festival like The Sundance Film Festival established in 1985 by Robert Redford’s Sundance Institute
Film festivals started as small scenarios for low budget filmmakers to showcase their talents, evolving in big stages for art house films to keep innovating the industry and boost great directors as Quentin Tarantino to the big screens. Hollywood film studios began investing in film festivals and independent films.